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Nutritive Value and Phytochemical Constituents in Garlic Cloves

K.L. Dahiya1, Shivani2 and Anita Atwal3

  1. B.V.Sc. & A.H., Veterinary Surgeon, G.V.H. Hamidpur (Kurukshetra) – Haryana
  2. B.A.M.S. (4th year) Lal Bahadur Shastri Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Bilaspur (Yamuna Nagar) Haryana
  3. Assistant Prof., Home Sc., BPSMV Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat – Haryana

Nutritive Value : Garlic has higher nutritive value than other bulb crops. It is rich in proteins, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and carbohydrates. Ascorbic acid content is very high in green garlic. Nutritive composition of fresh by peeled garlic cloves and dehydrated garlic powder is as follows (NHRDF 2015):

Particular Fresh peeled garlic cloves Dehydrated garlic powder
Moisture (%) 62.8 5.2
Protein (%) 6.3 17.5
Fat (%) 0.1 0.6
Mineral matter (%) 1 3.2
Fibre (%) 0.8 1.9
Carbohydrates (%) 29 71.4
Energy K. Cal 145
Calcium (%) 0.03 0.1
Phosphorus (%) 0.3 0.42
Potassium (%) 0.7
Magnesium (mg/100 g) 71
Iron (%) 0.001 0.004
Niacin (%) 0.7
Sodium (%) 0.01
Copper (mg/100 g) 0.63
Manganese (mg/100 g) 0.86
Zinc (mg/100 g) 1.93
Chromium (mg/100 g) 0.02
Vitamin A (IU) 0.4 175
Nicotinic acid (mg/100 g) 0.4
Vitamin C (mg/100 g) 13 12
Vitamin B (mg/100 g) 16 0.68
Riboflavin B2 (mg/100 g) 0.23 0.08
Thiamin (mg/100 g) 0.06

Phytochemical Constituents : The garlic cloves contains Albumin; Alkaloids; Allicin; Allin; Allyl disulphide; Amino acids; Cardiac glycosides; Diallyltrisulfides; Flavonoids; Glycosides; Kaempferol; Methylthiosulfonate; Mucilage; Phenolic compounds; Reducing sugars; S-allylcysteine; Saponins; Tannin; Triterpenoids; Volatile oil.

Phytochemical constituents of garlic bulbs extract
Phytochemical Percent
Tannins 0.058
Phenol 0.075
Flavonoids 0.052
Steroids 0.086
Saponins 0.696
Phlobatannins 0.025
Terpenes 0.063
Alkaloids 3.570
Glycosides 21.088
Anthraquinone 0.092
Source : Yusuf and Ekanem 2010

Garlic cloves are rich in sulphur containing amino acids known as alliin which has no taste, no smell, and no medicinal action. With crushing or chewing alliin comes into contact with the enzyme alliinase. Alliinase, in less than 6 seconds, transforms alliin into allicin (strongly medicinal), which breaks down into a number of sulphur compounds including ajoene, vinyldithin and diallyl disulfide, and trisulfide. The antibiotic effect is attributed to allicin; hypoglycaemic effect to allicin and allylprophyldisulphide (also to S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide); anticarcinogenic activity to diallyl monosulfide; platelet aggregation inhibitory effect to diallyl-di- and tri-sulphides. Ajoene inactivated human gastric lipase, which is involved in digestion and absorption of dietary fats. Garlic also rich in allyl sulphides (di- allyl, tetra- allyl, penta- allyl, hexa- allyl and hepta-sulphides) which are potential antioxidants (Khare 2007, NHRDF 2015).

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